• 可持续产品服务系统设计与分布式经济概念介绍

    近年来,随着信息技术的迅猛发展,自工业化时期后逐步形成的经济与社会结构似乎进入了根本性变化的萌芽期,“分布式”正是这些变化现象中越来越清晰的一个趋势。发轫于计算科学的“分布式”思想与方法,将零散的计算能力联结起来,实现网络状的高效计算系统。与之相似,新的能源技术突破了依赖大型发电厂和中央输电站的传统能源供应技术,使得更为灵活、轻便、低成本的太阳能、风能等进入大规模普及阶段。新的机械技术、材料工程等的发展,推动了在地化的、个性化的、小批次的产品制造与流通模式的发展。在这些基础设施与制造业上游发生的深刻变革,与广泛普及于大众的智能信息技术一起,共同构成了“分布式经济”这一越来越清晰的浪潮。

    作为最年轻且最具创造力的学科之一,设计在短短一百余年间发生过若干次转型。从最早“绘图”的基础性技术工作,到创造外观形态与美学风格,到强调以更好的功能来界定形式。在支柱性产业由制造业向服务业转型的过程中,设计的角色也在不断前移和后延:为开发更适合消费者需求的产品和服务而进入到研发阶段,为实现产品与服务系统的合理运转而介入到系统的后台运营。设计在慢慢成长为与工程、技术、管理等具备相似组织影响力的重要力量。

    分布式经济 (Distributed Economy, DE) 是一种基于分布式地区、按照小规模、弹性单元的模式进行组织和相互协同连接的特定产出与分享模式 (Johansson, Sweden, 2005)。 实现分布式经济的核心是基于本地化和网络信息架构的服务提供模式,互联网、大数据、物联网等技术条件是促进地域经济和产业实现分布式、协同式发展的重要技术支撑。
    在分布式经济蓬勃兴起的当下,设计将承担一个什么样的角色呢?分布式经济的各种具体实践对设计的需求在哪里?是安居于产业链的下端,在技术成熟之后为终端用户提供直接可使用的产品与服务,还是与实践者共同去探索未来的经济模式,搭建连接需求和供应的链条,共同参与塑造未来?在本次“可持续产品服务体系与分布式经济”国际研讨会中,我们将邀请产业界、第三部门、研究与教育机构的专家共同参与研讨,为面向未来的设计教育与研究,展开指向清晰问题的对话。

     

    In recent years, with the rapid development of information and communication technology, the economic and social structure gradually formed during the period of industrialization seems to have entered the embryonic stage of a fundamental change. "Distributed" is considered to be a more and more clear trend. The "distributed" idea and method is firstly proposed by computing science, linking up the scattered computing power and realizing the highly efficient computing network system. Similarly, new energy technologies broke through the traditional energy supply technologies that rely on large-scale power plants and central transmission stations, enabling the more flexible, lightweight, low-cost solar and wind energy widely diffused and used. Furthermore, the development of new mechanical technology and material engineering have promoted the development of localized, customized and small-scale product manufacturing and distribution system. The profound changes in these infrastructure and manufacturing industries, along with the widespread adoption of intelligent information technologies, have synergized into the emerging wave of "distributed economies".

     

    As one of the youngest and most creative disciplines, design has undergone several transformations in just over a hundred years. From the earliest graphic design as the basic technical work, to the design of format and aesthetic style, to the theory of function defines form. In this process of transformation when the global economic gravity center transferring from manufacturing to service industry, the role of design is also protracting and extending: protracted into the research and development stage in order to create products and services which could meet the customer demands better, extended into the back operation in order to achieve a better maintenance of the product and service system. Design is slowly growing to be an important influence force in organizations, as well as engineering, technology and management.

     

    Distributed Economies (DE) are “selective share of production distributed to regions where activities are organized in the form of small scale, flexible units that are synergistically connected with each other”. [JOHANSSON et al., IIIEE, SWEEDEN, 2005].The core of the distributed economy is the service delivery model, based on the localized and networked information architecture. Internet, big data, Internet of things and other technical conditions are the key elements to promote the regional distributed economy and to achieve a coordinated development. DE are in fact locally-based and network-structured offer models such us: distributed energy generation (e.g. mini-grid renewable energy generation), distributed production of information (e.g. wikipedia), distributed production of softwares (e.g. Linux), distributed production of (hardware) products (e.g. 3-D Printing), distributed design (e.g. open innovation/design and crowd-sourcing).

     

    If properly designed, DE represent a promising opportunity to couple several benefits: economic ones (reduced cost of transportation, increased reliability), environmental (efficiency gains, reduced emissions) and socio-ethical ones (democratization of acces to goods and services, increased participation and empowerment of local economies and communities).

     

    At present when the distributed economy is booming, what kind of role design would take? What are the specific needs of the distributed economy for design? Stagnating on the bottom of the industrial chain, and providing the affordable products and services directly to the end-users when the technology is mature enough? Or join in the practitioners to explore the future economic model, and connecting demand and supply, participating in shaping the future? In this International Seminar on Sustainable Product Service Systems and Distributed Economies, we will invite experts from industry, third sector, research and education institutions into a public discussion, which will orient to the future design education and research.